Guide to Historic Taxila


Prehistoric Taxila of Takshaka Rulers

The Oldest rulers of Taxila, the Takshakas, their modern descendants being Taka tribe, whose name originated from their worship of Takila, i.e. serpents, have given rise to the name of the city,Taxila, correctly Taksha-sila, i.e. the hill capital of the Takshakas, the exact Persian translation of which id Margalla, correctly Mar (serpent)-I-Qila (fort).it is on the western side of the Margalla Hill that Taxila is located on bank of a local river,called Tamra-nala, correctly Dharama-nala (Dharma meaning "Buddhist moral law) –a name derived from a nearby Buddhist stupa, called Dharmarajika stupa, the first of its kind erected by the Mauryan emperor Asoka about the middle of the 3rd century B.C.


The remains of the Takshakas of Bronze Age (3rd-2nd millnnium B.C.)have been found at the bottom of the Hathial Mound on the bank of Tamra-nala, at the edge of the Mathial spur about half a mile to the north-east of Taxila Museum. Their painted pottery, polished stone tools, beads and bone implements, also found at another local site, called Saraikhola on the bank of the Kala rivulet, a few miles to the south-west of the Museum,a little distance from the main National Highway, belong to a cultural period earlier then the mature Indus Civilization of Mohen-jo-Daro fame. Saraikhola is named after a Mughal Caravan-serai not gar from the site in the thick settlement of the modern town of Saraikhola. It is near the Saraikhola site that the earliest Neolithic agricultural fields are traceable. The hill fort (sila) of the Takshakas is now completely missing but the name Taksha-sila (Taxila) survives even today in that of Margalla.


Painted pottery, (2) Polished stone tools, and (3) bone tools.



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